1. You should read all of the readings for this week.
  2. Think about the following questions and be ready to discuss in class:
    • Why do we use simulations to study something?
    • How can we distinguish between good simulation-based research and bad simulation-based research?
    • Come up with an integrated answer to these questions across all the papers you read. Let's see if we can come up with a good list amongst the three of us.
  3. Less to do this week since you're working on your paper.


  1. "The philosophy of science and validation in simulation", by George B. Kleindorfer and Ram Ganeshan. In G.W. Evans, et al., editors, Proceedings of the 1993 Winter Simulation Conference, pages 50-57. IEEE, 1993.
  2. Do not read: "Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences", by Naomi Oreskes, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, and Kenneth Belitz, Science, 263 (February 4, 1994), pp 641-6.
  3. "Aligning simulation models: A case study and results", by Robert Axtell, et al., Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 1:123-41, 1996.
  4. "Agent-based computational models and generative social science", by Joshua M. Epstein, Complexity, 4(5):41-60, 1999.
  5. "Advancing the art of simulation in the social sciences", by Robert Axelrod. Japanese Journal for Management Information Systems, 12(3), December 2003.

Other readings

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